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Author Topic: SUDAN  (Read 14909 times)
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NevadaStars
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« on: March 01, 2008, 01:35:21 PM »

Sudan (officially the Republic of The Sudan) (Arabic: السودان ‎as-Sūdān) is the largest country in Africa and tenth largest country in the world by area. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, Kenya and Uganda to the southeast, Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. The country's name derives from the Arabic Bilad-al-sudan, literally "lands of the blacks."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan




« Last Edit: March 01, 2008, 01:46:32 PM by NevadaStars (Margie) » Logged
BenElberger
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« Reply To This #1 on: March 01, 2008, 07:42:36 PM »

Just to note, Kiva's partner in Sudan is in South Sudan.  South Sudan is semi-autonomous and is treated as such in the way that the law affects Southern Sudanese, microfinance institutions in South Sudan, and Kiva (for instance, we aren't legally able to work in northern Sudan).

Thanks!
Ben
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Natasha
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« Reply To This #2 on: March 01, 2008, 08:51:32 PM »

Amnesty International Report 2007: Sudan

http://www.amnesty.org/

Attachment: 2007 Report: Sudan (5 pages)

* SUDAN Amnesty International 2007 Report.doc (66 KB - downloaded 184 times.)
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« Reply To This #3 on: March 01, 2008, 08:54:35 PM »

Pyramids of Meroe

In approximately 1000 BCE, following the collapse of the 24th Egyptian dynasty, the Nubian kingdom of Kush arose as the leading power in the region of the Middle Nile. From 712 - 657 BCE, the Kushite kings conquered and ruled much of Egypt. Around the time of 300 BCE, the capital and royal burial ground of the kingdom moved from Napata further south to the Meroe region, located between the 5th and 6th cataracts of the Nile. Meroe was ideally situated at the junction of river and caravan routes, to connect central Africa, via the Blue and White Niles, with Egypt, the Red Sea and the Ethiopian highlands. Historical information concerning the history of the Kushite kingdom and Meroe is limited. By approximately the 1st century BCE, when the Kushinite royalty and their scribes stopped writing in Egyptian and began using their own script, it becomes impossible to understand their official inscriptions. Thus far the Kushite script has not been deciphered and historical knowledge of the civilization is based on archaeological findings and surviving Greek and Roman reports.

The pharaonic tradition of dynastic Egypt continued with a succession of rulers at Meroe, who erected stelae to record the achievements of their reigns and pyramids to contain their tombs. Meroe's political succession system was not always hereditary; the matriarchal royal family member deemed most worthy often became king. The queen mother's role in the selection process was crucial to a smooth succession. The crown appears to have passed from brother to brother (or sister) and only when no siblings remained from father to son. The extensive ruins of pyramids, temples and palaces at Meroe indicate a cohesive political system that utilized a large force of laborers, architects and artists.

During the height of its power in the second and third centuries BCE, Meroe extended over a region from the third cataract in the north to Sawba, near present-day Khartoum, in the south. This area was the heartland of the later Kushite kingdom, and came to be known in classical literature as "the Island of Meroe." The rulers of Meroe were contemporaries with the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Romans. In the third century BC, they maintained good relations with the Ptolemies, since the kings of the two neighboring Nile states collaborated in renovating the temples of Lower Nubia that were sacred to both Kush and Egypt. Agents of the Ptolemies also traveled up the Nile as explorers and emissaries, some perhaps traveling to Meroe to haggle with the Kushite ruler over the price of war elephants which they sought to purchase for the armies of Egypt. Relations between Meroe and Egypt, however, were not always peaceful. In 23 BCE, in response to Meroe's military advance into Upper Egypt, a powerful Roman army moved south and destroyed Napata, the religious center of the Kushite kingdom. The Romans enslaved its inhabitants but then departed the area, considering it too poor for permanent settlement. Finally the Kushite kingdom declined following the expansion of the Abyssinian state of Axum (in modern Ethiopia). About 350 ACE, an Axumite army captured and destroyed Meroe, thereby ending the kingdom's independent existence.

The major god of the Kushite religion was a divinity of regional origin. Known as Apede-mak, and possibly a lion form of the Egyptian god Amun, he was sometimes associated with the moon. Frequently portrayed as an armored and lion-headed man, he was depicted in temples standing or seated on an either an elephant or a throne, while holding weapons, prisoners or lions and elephants. Grand temples were constructed in his honor at numerous places throughout the Kushite region.

The most visible remains at Meroe are its pyramids, which contained the tombs of more than forty kings, queens, and other important individuals. Given the existence of several large tomb-pyramids of queens and the remains of buildings exclusively bearing their names, Meroe after the 3rd century BCE appears to have been ruled by queens as well as kings. While these royal tombs were all plundered in ancient times, frescos preserved in the tombs show that the rulers were either burned, mummified (or not), and then covered with jewelry and laid in wooden cases. Some of the tombs, of both royal and wealthy individuals, also contained the skeletal remains of other humans, as well as animals. These associated burial remains indicate a belief, similar to that in dynastic Egypt, that the deceased would need and enjoy the same things in the afterlife as they had while living. Additional damage was done to the pyramids by the 19th century Italian explorer Giuseppe Ferlini who demolished the tops of more than forty pyramids in his search for treasures. Ferlini found gold in only one pyramid and his plundered artifacts were later sold to European museums. Contemporary archaeological excavations have revealed that some of the larger tombs still contain remains of weapons, wooden furniture, pottery, stained glass, and silver and bronze vessels, many of these being of Egyptian, Greek and Roman origins. Today Meroe is the largest archaeological site in the Sudan. Situated about a half a mile from the Nile, the city ruins extend over a square mile in area. Meroe was included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites in 2003.

http://www.sacredsites.com/africa/sudan/meroe.html


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* pyramids-meroe-500.jpg (48.85 KB, 500x333 - viewed 280 times.)

* pyramids-meroe-dunes-500.jpg (30.57 KB, 500x333 - viewed 291 times.)
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Natasha
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« Reply To This #4 on: March 01, 2008, 08:59:53 PM »

Southern Sudan

Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan, comprising ten of that country's provinces. The Sudanese government agreed to give autonomy to the region in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed on January 9, 2005 in Naivasha, Kenya with the SPLA/M, tentatively bringing an end to the Second Sudanese Civil War. Southern Sudan borders Ethiopia to the east, Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, and the Central African Republic to the west. To the north lies the predominantly Arab and Muslim region directly under the control of the central government.

Southern Sudan, also known as New Sudan, has nearly all of its administrative offices in Juba, the capital, which is also the largest city, based on population estimates.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Sudan



* Southern Sudan Flag.png (1.59 KB, 125x63 - viewed 397 times.)
« Last Edit: March 01, 2008, 09:46:38 PM by Natasha » Logged
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« Reply To This #5 on: March 09, 2008, 06:59:00 PM »

Cuisine and Dining in Sudan

The Sudan is Africa in microcosm: a large country with geographic, extremes ranging from sandy desert to tropical forest. It is culturally a loose association of almost 600 tribes who have Arabic as their common language. The French, the English, and the Italians have all had colonies in the Sudan. The cuisine is a melding of the many varied backgrounds of the peoples who have influenced its history.

The ritual of hospitality is as important in the Sudan as it is in other Arab and African countries. And while there is a measure of similarity in all the Arab and African countries, each has its unique characteristics. For example, no other country prepares coffee as the Sudanese do, and if this country acquired culinary fame, it is for its Jebena Sudanese. The Sudanese fry their coffee beans in a special pot over charcoal and then grind it with cloves and certain spices. They steep it in hot water and serve it lovingly in tiny coffee cups after straining it through a special tresh grass sieve.

In Sudan, if you are an important guest, a sheep will be slaughtered in your honor. Many dishes will then be prepared, each more delicious than the last.

Favorite meats are lamb and chicken. Rice is the staple starch. Breads are the Arabian Khubz, but the Sudanese also make Kisra, an omelette- like pancake which is part of the Sudanese dinner. Vegetables, fresh and cooked, are of infinite variety. The okra, which incidentally came to the United States from Africa, is an important ingredient in a Bamia- Bamia, an okra lamb stew. You must try Maschi, a triple tomato dish stuffed with beef, as it is such fun to make.

As in most Arabic countries, fruits are peeled and cut in small slices for dessert, but the Sudanese also love sweets and every housewife knows how to make Creme Caramela.

You will like their unusual teas which can be made quite simply. But if you prefer to serve coffee, make it a demitasse.


How a Dinner is Served in Sudan

The concern and respect shown to one's guest throughout Africa, and from which we can learn much, is no greater anywhere than in the Sudan. As a guest enters a Sudanese home, he is immediately offered Abre or Tabrihana, a refreshing nonalcoholic fruit drink only slightly sweetened so as not to dull the appetite. This is a symbolic gesture welcoming him after his "long journey."

Dinner is served on a low table and guests are made comfortable on pillows decorated with ostrich feathers. The table is bare. The Arabic custom of pouring water over the hands of the guests from the Ebrig, a handsome shiny copper ewer (pitcher), and catching the water into an equally handsome copper basin is an important ritual in the Sudan. Each guest is offered a towel with which to wipe his hands. Large cloths to cover the knees are given to each guest in place of napkins.

Upon the signal of the host, dinner is served. It starts with soup, brought out in individual bowls on a huge, round, decorated copper tray. The large tray is placed on the table. Spoons are offered to the guests.

After the soup has been enjoyed, the entire tray is removed and a second large tray is brought in with all the dishes of the main course resting on beaded doilies made by the women. There may be five or six dishes to dip into. (No knives or forks are used but spoons may be provided.) But most of the Sudanese eat the main course from common dishes using Kisra or Khubz (their great flat breads) to sop up the mixtures. Four dishes are individually served-the soup, the salad, the Shata (red-hot spice) and the dessert.

When the entree is served, small plates or bowls are also brought in from which the host or hostess dishes out portions of salad and gives each guest a spoon with which to eat the salad. Again hands are washed and everyone looks forward to dessert. Sweets like Creme Caramela are usually served and are preferred to fruits. No beverage is served with dinner but one may ask for water. After dinner everyone relaxes and enjoys the famous Guhwah, coffee served from the Jebena, the stunning little coffee pot from which it is poured into tiny cups. If tea is preferred, the succulent spiced teas with cloves or cinnamon are served. Finally an incense burner filled with sandalwood is placed in the center of the room, a touch leaving the guests with a feeling of delightful relaxation.

http://www.sudan.net/society/recipe.html
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« Reply To This #6 on: March 09, 2008, 07:00:48 PM »

SHORBA -Puree of Lamb Khartoum

Yield: 2 quarts of soup (8 1-cup portions)

This is a most interesting soup. It is a medium puree sparkled with peanut butter and lemon. The Sudanese usually add rice but it is omitted here since rice is served with the entree. Three cloves of garlic may be a bit strong so start with one clove and test the soup as it cooks to see if you would prefer a more penetrating garlic flavor.

In a 6-quart saucepan:

Simmer: 3 Ibs. LAMB BONES in 2 quarts WATER
2 tsp. SALT for one hour.
Add: 1/2 Ib. WHOLE ONIONS, peeled

1/2 Ib. CARROTS, peeled and cut in chunks
1/2 Ib. CABBAGE, cut in small wedges
1/2 Ib. STRING BEANS, trimmed
3 cloves GARLIC, chopped finely

Simmer for 1 hour until vegetables are thoroughly cooked.

Remove lamb bones and put the mixture through a sieve or food mill.

Add: 4 Tbs. PEANUT BUTTER thinned with

1 LEMON (juice of)
1/2 cup COOKED RICE (optional).
Correct the seasoning with salt, pepper, etc.

Serve in soup bowls, about 1 cup per portion.

http://www.sudan.net/society/recipe.html
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« Reply To This #7 on: March 09, 2008, 07:01:55 PM »

MASCHI- Stuffed Tomato with Chopped Beef

Yield: 8 portions

Maschi is also made with cucumbers. The cucumbers are peeled, cut lengthwise, scooped out, filled and finished as below. You may also use eggplants. Peel small eggplants, remove the tops, scoop out interiors and proceed in the same manner. The cucumber dish is garnished with fresh cucumber slices and the eggplant with tomato and cucumber slices overlapping all around the edge.

In a 9-inch skillet:

Saute: 2 Ibs. CHOPPED BEEF

1 tsp. SALT
1/2 tsp. PEPPER
1 tsp. GARLIC POWDER (or 2 cloves mashed)
4 Tbs. CHOPPED FRESH DILL (or 1 tsp. dried dill) in
2 Tbs. SALAD OIL until meat browns.
Add 1 cup COOKED RICE and blend.

Cut a Slit in 8 large TOMATOES (very firm), halfway across the center.

Squeeze at the sides to open the slit.

Scoop out all the flesh from inside of tomatoes with a spoon.

Refill tomato with beef mixture and close the tomato.

Melt 2 Tbs. BUTTER and

2 Tbs. OIL in a large skillet.
Saute the tomatoes carefully in the fat, rolling them gently until they become dark red on all sides.

Remove the tomatoes with the oil and place in a casserole or heavy saucepan.

Prepare sauce as follows and pour over the tomatoes:

Combine: 2 6-oz. cans TOMATO PASTE thinned with

2 6 oz. cans WATER
1/2 tsp. SALT
1 tsp. CINNAMON
1 tsp. GARLIC POWDER.
Simmer the tomatoes gently over low flame for 10 to 15 minutes until sauce is cooked.

Remove carefully to a 15-inch round platter.

Surround with raw TOMATOES cut in thick slices.

Top each slice with GREEN OLIVES

If there is more Maschi filling left over after filling the tomatoes place it in a suitable pan and bake it alongside the tomatoes

http://www.sudan.net/society/recipe.html
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« Reply To This #8 on: March 09, 2008, 07:02:48 PM »

SALATA MA JIBNA -Salad with Parmesan Cheese

Yield: 8 small salads

In a 2-quart salad bowl:

Combine: 1 cup ONIONS, cut in slivers or thin slices

1 cup CABBAGE, cut in slivers or thin slices
1/2 cup CARROTS, cut in very thin rounds (slices)
1 cup TOMATOES, cut in 1/2 inch dice.
Toss: with 1/4 cup OLIVE OIL

1/4 cup LEMON JUICE
2 Tbs. VINEGAR (white)
1 tsp. SALT
1/4 tsp. COARSE BLACK PEPPER.
Sprinkle: 1 clove GARLIC (mashed)

1/4 cup GRATED CHEESE (Oriental or Parmesan) over salad.
Serve in small individual salad dishes.

http://www.sudan.net/society/recipe.html
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« Reply To This #9 on: March 09, 2008, 07:04:15 PM »

SALATET ZABADY BIL AJUR -Cucumber/Yogurt Salad

This is a delightful, refreshing summer salad also popular in Egypt, Turkey and the Balkans.

Ingredients

2 Cups (16oz/500g) plain yogurt
1 Clove garlic, finely minced
1 large cucumber, peeled, seeded and shredded or finely diced
salt and freshly ground pepper

Method:

1. In a bowl, combine all the ingredients, cover and refrigerate for 2-4 hours.
2. At serving time, taste and adjust the seasoning, then serve immediately

http://www.sudan.net/society/recipe.html
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