Download the Kiva toolbar! - (what's this?)

October 31, 2014, 06:33:14 PM *
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register (it's quick and free!) for full access to all community features and functions, including instant messaging and message viewing preferences.

Login with username, password and session length

Cool Forum Options
: Not available. Login or register :)
: Popular Topics on Kiva Friends

Kivapedia
: View recent changes on Kivapedia
: Online shopping that helps support Kiva
: List of Kiva microfinance institutions
: List of Kiva group lenders
: Kiva Timeline : More...


.
Welcome to Kiva Friends, an active community for Kiva users, staff and supporters. Don't know what Kiva is? Read this!
   
   Home   Search Calendar Help Tags Login Register  

Pages: 1 2 3 [All]   Go Down
  Bookmark This  |  E-Mail This  |  Print It  
Author Topic: BOLIVIA  (Read 11773 times)
0 Members and 1 Guest were last seen viewing this topic.
Natasha
Kiva Supporter
Australia
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 1082



View Profile
« on: March 11, 2008, 04:10:29 PM »

BOLIVIA

The Republic of Bolivia (Spanish: República de Bolivia, pronounced [reˈpuβlika ðe βoˈliβi̯a]), named after Simón Bolívar, is a landlocked country in central South America. It is bordered by Brazil on the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina on the south, and Chile and Peru on the west. From 1839 Sucre was the seat of government until the administrative capital was moved to La Paz in 1898. Sucre remains the constitutional capital and seat of the Supreme Court (Corte Suprema de Justicia).

At 1,098,580 km² (424,135 mi²), Bolivia is the world's 28th-largest country (after Ethiopia). It is comparable in size to Mauritania, and it has about 1.5 times the area of the US state of Texas.

 
Bolivia has been a landlocked nation since 1879, when it lost its coastal department of Litoral to Chile in the War of the Pacific. However, it does have access to the Atlantic via the Paraguay river.

An enormous diversity of ecological zones are represented within Bolivia's territory. The western highlands of the country are situated in the Andes mountains and include the Bolivian Altiplano. The eastern lowlands include large sections of Amazonian rainforests and Chaco. The highest peak is Nevado Sajama at 6,542 metres (21,463 ft) located in the department of Oruro. Lake Titicaca is located on the border between Bolivia and Peru. The Salar de Uyuni, the world's largest salt flat, lies in the southwest corner of the country, in the department of Potosí.

Major cities are La Paz, El Alto, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and Cochabamba.



Bolivia is the poorest country in South America. This has been attributed to high levels of corruption and the imperialist role of foreign powers in the country since the colonization.[citation needed] The country is rich in natural resources, and has been called a "donkey sitting on a gold-mine" because of this. Apart from famous mines, which were known by the Incas and later exploited by the Spaniards, Bolivia owns the second largest natural gas field in South America after Venezuela. Furthermore, El Mutún in the Santa Cruz department represents 70% of the world's iron and magnesium.


The United States remains Bolivia's largest trading-partner. In 2002, the United States exported $283 million of merchandise to Bolivia and imported $162 million. Bolivia's major exports to the United States are tin, gold, jewelry, and wood-products. Its major imports from the United States are computers, vehicles, wheat, and machinery. A Bilateral Investment Treaty between the United States and Bolivia came into effect in 2001.

Agriculture accounts for roughly 15% of Bolivia's GDP. The amount of land cultivated by modern farming-techniques is increasing rapidly in the Santa Cruz area, where weather allows for two crops a year. Soybeans are the major cash crop, sold into the Andean Community market. The extraction of minerals and hydrocarbons accounts for another 10% of GDP and manufacturing for less than 17%.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolivia


* Bolivia.png (12.27 KB, 328x350 - viewed 411 times.)

* Bolivia Departments.png (29.1 KB, 180x203 - viewed 389 times.)

* Flag of Bolivia.png (1.58 KB, 125x83 - viewed 371 times.)
Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #1 on: March 23, 2008, 08:41:31 AM »

Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #2 on: March 23, 2008, 08:43:19 AM »

Geography


Landlocked Bolivia is equal in size to California and Texas combined. Brazil forms its eastern border; its other neighbors are Peru and Chile on the west and Argentina and Paraguay on the south. The western part, enclosed by two chains of the Andes, is a great plateau—the Altiplano, with an average altitude of 12,000 ft (3,658 m). Almost half the population lives on the plateau, which contains Oruro, Potosí, and La Paz. At an altitude of 11,910 ft (3,630 m), La Paz is the highest administrative capital city in the world. The Oriente, a lowland region ranging from rain forests to grasslands, comprises the northern and eastern two-thirds of the country. Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 12,507 ft (3,812 m), is the highest commercially navigable body of water in the world.


Government

Republic.


History

Famous since Spanish colonial days for its mineral wealth, modern Bolivia was once a part of the ancient Incan empire. After the Spaniards defeated the Incas in the 16th century, Bolivia's predominantly Indian population was reduced to slavery. The remoteness of the Andes helped protect the Bolivian Indians from the European diseases that decimated other South American Indians. But the existence of a large indigenous group forced to live under the thumb of their colonizers created a stratified society of haves and have-nots that continues to this day. Income inequality between the largely impoverished Indians who make up two-thirds of the country and the light-skinned, European elite remains vast.

By the end of the 17th century the mineral wealth had begun to dry up. The country won its independence in 1825 and was named after Simón Bolívar, the famous liberator. Hampered by internal strife, Bolivia lost great slices of territory to three neighboring nations. Several thousand square miles and its outlet to the Pacific were taken by Chile after the War of the Pacific (1879–1884). In 1903, a piece of Bolivia's Acre Province, rich in rubber, was ceded to Brazil. And in 1938, after losing the Chaco War of 1932–1935 to Paraguay, Bolivia gave up its claim to nearly 100,000 sq mi of the Gran Chaco. Political instability ensued.

In 1965, a guerrilla movement mounted from Cuba and headed by Maj. Ernesto (Ché) Guevara began a revolutionary war. With the aid of U.S. military advisers, the Bolivian army smashed the guerrilla movement, capturing and killing Guevara on Oct. 8, 1967. A string of military coups followed before the military returned the government to civilian rule in 1982, when Hernán Siles Zuazo became president. At that point, Bolivia was regularly shut down by work stoppages and had the lowest per capita income in South America.

In June 1993, free-market advocate Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada was elected president. He was succeeded by former general Hugo Bánzer, an ex-dictator turned democrat who became president for the second time in Aug. 1997. Bánzer made significant progress in wiping out illicit coca production and drug trafficking, which pleased the United States. However, the eradication of coca, a major crop in Bolivia since Incan times, plunged many Bolivian farmers into abject poverty. Although Bolivia sits on South America's second-largest natural gas reserves as well as considerable oil, the country has remained one of the poorest on the continent.

In Aug. 2002, Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada again became president, pledging to continue economic reforms and to create jobs. In October 2003 Sánchez resigned after months of rioting and strikes over a gas-exporting project that protesters believed would benefit foreign companies more than Bolivians. His vice president, Carlos Mesa, replaced him. Despite continued unrest, Mesa remained popular during his first two years as president. In a July 2004 referendum on the future of the country's significant natural gas reserves (the second largest in South America), Bolivians overwhelmingly supported Mesa's plan to exert more control over foreign gas companies. Mesa managed to satisfy the strong antiprivatization sentiment among Bolivians without shutting the door on some limited form of privatization in the future. But rising fuel prices in 2005 led to massive protests by tens of thousands of impoverished farmers and miners, and on June 6 Mesa resigned. Supreme court justice Eduardo Rodriguez took over as interim president.

Bolivian Indian activist Evo Morales of the Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) won 54% of the vote in Dec. 2005 presidential elections, becoming the country's first indigenous president. He carried out two of his three major initiatives in 2006: nationalizing Bolivia's energy industry, which is expected to double the country's annual revenues; and forming in August a constituent assembly to rewrite the constitution, which will ensure greater rights for indigenous Bolivians. His third major initiative is to legalize the growing of coca, which many Bolivians consider an integral part of their culture. In July 2007, Morales announced plans to nationalize the country's railways, which for the past 10 years have been run by investors from Chile and the United States. His controversial coca policy, his plans to limit foreign investment, and his close ties with the leftist governments of Venezuela and Cuba have predictably antagonized the United States. Morales has referred to himself as the “United States' biggest nightmare.”

On December 9, 2007, Morales presented a new constitution to congress. The new chapter, which will give indigenous people more rights, recognize 37 official languages, and grant indigenous communities autonomy, was approved by 164 of the 255 constituent assembly members. The opposition boycotted the meeting, however, claiming that the document is illegal because it was not approved by the required two-thirds majority. Regardless of the opposition, the government plans to submit the document to a referendum in 2008.

Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #3 on: March 23, 2008, 08:46:29 AM »

Republic of Bolivia

National name: República de Bolivia

President: Evo Morales (2006)

Land area: 418,683 sq mi (1,084,389 sq km); total area: 424,164 sq mi (1,098,580 sq km)

Population (2007 est.): 9,119,152 (growth rate: 1.4%); birth rate: 22.8/1000; infant mortality rate: 50.4/1000; life expectancy: 66.2; density per sq mi: 22

Historic and judicial capital (2003 est.): Sucre, 204,200; Administrative capital: La Paz, 1,576,100 (metro. area), 830,500 (city proper)

Other large cities: Santa Cruz, 1,168,700; Cochabamba, 815,800; El Alto, 728,500; Oruro, 211,700

Monetary unit: Boliviano

Languages: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara (all official)

Ethnicity/race: Quechua 30%, mestizo 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%

Religion: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%

Literacy rate: 87% (2003 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2005 est.): $23.73 billion; per capita $2,700. Real growth rate: 3.4%. Inflation: 4.9%. Unemployment: 8% in urban areas with widespread underemployment. Arable land: 3%. Agriculture: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber. Labor force: 4.22 million; agriculture n.a., industry n.a., services n.a. Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing. Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower. Exports: $2.371 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.): natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore, tin. Imports: $1.845 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.): petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts, prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides, soybeans. Major trading partners: Brazil, U.S. Venezuela, Peru, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, China, Japan (2004).

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 600,100 (2003); mobile cellular: 1,401,500 (2003). Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999). Television broadcast stations: 48 (1997). Internet hosts: 7,080 (2003). Internet users: 270,000 (2002).

Transportation: Railways: total: 3,519 km (2004). Highways: total: 60,282 km; paved: 3,979 km; unpaved: 56,303 km (2002). Waterways: 10,000 km (commercially navigable) (2004). Ports and harbors:Puerto Aguirre (on the Paraguay/Parana waterway, at the Bolivia/Brazil border); also, Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay. Airports: 1,065 (2004 est.).

International disputes: Chile rebuffs Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas and other commodities.

Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #4 on: March 23, 2008, 08:49:41 AM »

Country profile: Bolivia 

 
A country of statistical extremes, landlocked Bolivia is the highest and most isolated country in South America.

It has the largest proportion of indigenous people, who make up around two-thirds of the population.


OVERVIEW


Though rich in mineral and energy resources, Bolivia is one of South America's poorest countries. Wealthy urban elites, who are mostly of Spanish ancestry, have traditionally dominated political and economic life, whereas most Bolivians are low-income subsistence farmers, miners, small traders or artisans.

The country has the second-largest reserves of natural gas in South America, but there have been long-running tensions over the exploitation and export of the resource. Indigenous groups say the country should not relinquish control of the reserves, which they see as Bolivia's sole remaining natural resource.

Before President Evo Morales came to power the political fallout from the issue had helped to topple two presidents and had led to calls for regional autonomy, including in prosperous, oil-producing Santa Cruz.

In May 2006 President Morales delighted his supporters but sent shockwaves through the energy world when he put the energy industry under state control. Foreign energy firms were given six months to sell at least 51% of their holding to the state and negotiate new contracts or leave the country.

In the 1980s Bolivia went into a deep economic recession. The tin market collapsed, with the loss of about 21,000 jobs, inflation was rampant and the national currency was in severe crisis.

While strict austerity measures, the introduction of a new currency and tax reform succeeded in curbing inflation and restoring foreign confidence, these policies also widened the already huge wealth gap and generated great social unrest.

Bolivia is one of the world's largest producers of coca, the raw material for cocaine. A crop-eradication programme, though easing the flow of conditional US aid, has incensed many of Bolivia's poorest farmers for whom coca is often the only source of income.




 
Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #5 on: March 23, 2008, 08:52:44 AM »

President: Evo Morales





Socialist leader Evo Morales, a figurehead for Bolivia's coca farmers, won presidential elections in December 2005, the first indigenous Bolivian to do so. He described himself as the candidate "of the most disdained and discriminated against".

His victory was decisive; he surpassed the figure needed to take office without the need for a vote in Congress. Much of his support came from Bolivia's indigenous majority.

A few months later, in June 2006, he claimed victory in elections for a new assembly which was given the task of rewriting the constitution. He has campaigned for a new constitution to enshrine the party's nationalisation and land redistribution programme.

In December 2007 Mr Morales formally received the new draft constitution, which he says will give more powers to Bolivia's indigenous majority. But there have been street demonstrations and four of the country's wealthiest regions have declared autonomy in protest. The draft document now has to get through two referendums.

Mr Morales has already nationalised much of the energy sector. In January 2007 he marked his first year in office with a speech promising further radical measures to help redistribute wealth.

He pledged to raise taxes on foreign mining firms and re-distribute one-fifth of Bolivia's land to peasant farmers. Observers say his government faces growing opposition in the gas and oil producing regions in the east, where many worry that the changes will frighten away foreign investors. But some protesters in the south-east say nationalisation has not gone far enough.

His policies in other areas look set to inflame opinion. In particular, a promise to relax restrictions on growing coca, the raw material for cocaine, could make him a thorn in the side of the US, which has bankrolled the fight against drugs in the country.

Mr Morales defends the traditional uses of the coca leaf among the indigenous population. His government wants to exploit commercial and medicinal uses for the leaves.

Born in 1959, Evo Morales is an Aymara Indian from an impoverished family. In his youth he was a llama herder and a trumpet player. The former coca grower lost the 2002 presidential election to the conservative, Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada.

He is an admirer of two Latin American populist firebrands - Cuba's Fidel Castro and Venezuela's Hugo Chavez.

He succeeded caretaker leader Eduardo Rodriguez, who took office in June 2005 when President Carlos Mesa resigned amid mass protests demanding the nationalisation of the energy sector.

Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #6 on: March 23, 2008, 08:53:43 AM »

MEDIA


Private newspapers and broadcasters dominate Bolivia's media landscape; their ownership is highly concentrated.

Media rights body Reporters Without Borders noted in 2007 that Bolivia enjoyed greater press freedom than many of its neighbours. But it said journalists rarely covered sensitive topics, including drug trafficking and corruption.

The organisation said media outlets had become targets in the settling of political scores, with political volatility threatening to "widen the gap" between state-run and private media.

Newspaper readership is limited by low literacy levels. With hundreds of stations across the country, radio is an important medium, especially in rural areas.

The press

La Razon - La Paz daily
Los Tiempos - Cochabamba daily
El Diario - La Paz daily
El Deber - Santa Cruz daily
El Mundo - Santa Cruz daily
Correo del Sur - Sucre daily
Television

Bolivision (Canal 4) - private, Santa Cruz-based
Unitel (Canal 9) - private, Santa Cruz-based
ATB Red Nacional (Canal 9) - private, La Paz-based
Red Uno (Canal 11) - private, La Paz-based
Television Boliviana (Canal 7) - government-run, commercial
TV Universitaria (Canal 13) - university station, La Paz-based
Red P.A.T. - private, national
Radio

Radio Fides - Catholic, news and talk
Radio Panamericana - national, news and talk network
Radio Illimani - state-run
Radio Patria Nueva - state-run, community network
News agencies

Agencia Boliviana de Informacion (ABI) - government-run
Agencia de Noticias Fides (ANF) - owned by Catholic Church

Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #7 on: March 23, 2008, 08:56:24 AM »

TOURISM: What to visit in Bolivia


LA PAZ:


Bolivia's administrative capital (seat of government) since 1898, La Paz is also the capital of its most populated province (department). It is the world's highest capital and highest large city (3,580 meters/ 11,740 feet). Its population, which was estimated at nearly 1.2 million in 1990, has doubled over the last twenty years. Sixteen percent of Bolivia's population resides in La Paz. It is situated in the broad deep throughlike valley of the river that bears the same name well bellow (about 400 meters, 1400 feet) the surface of the Altiplano. The surface of the Lago Titicaca, about 60 kilometers (40 miles) to the northwest is higher by 235 meters (770 feet). The high snow-capped mountains, especially Mount Illimani (6,460 meters, 21,200 feet), which rise east of La Paz, provide a magnificent background to the city.
The city was founded as Nuestra Senora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace) in 1548 by a Spanish expedition headed by Alonso de Mendoza. The site, which was inhabited by Inca peasants, has favourable climatic conditions, sheltered as it is from the cold winds that blow over the Altiplano. The city developed only after it became Bolivia's capital; it had a population of 79,000 in 1900.

There is a little left of the old colonial and nineteenth-century town with the exception of some steep narrow streets and layout of some squares. The Plaza Murillo, with the city's cathedral, legislative buildings, and government institutions, is the focal area of the central part of the city, which has many modern buildings, including skyscrapers. Bolivia's most important university, Mayor de San Andres (founded in 1830), several other institutions of higher learning, and museums give La Paz its dominant position in the country's cultural life.


LAKE TITICACA:

Because of its location and environmental influence, Lake Titicaca since prehistoric times has been one of the main focuses of human settlement in South America. The remains found at Tiahuanaco near the southeastern end of the lake attest to the previous existence of one of the oldest civilizations known in the Americas, preceding that of the Aymara and Inca. The first Europeans (Spaniards) who reached the lake found its surroundings to be one of the most densely populated areas in South America. It continued so until the nineteenth century. The area around the lake is still densely populated.
The highest lake in the world (3,800 meters, 12,507 feet), it is 200 kilometers (125 miles) long, with a maximum width of 110 kilometers (69 miles), maximum depth of 280 meters (918 feet), and an area of 8,300 square kilometers (3,240 square miles). It is a fresh-water lake fed by a number of rivers coming mainly from the Cordillera Real (part of the Cordillera Oriental) near its eastern shores. The surplus waters of the lake are drained by Rio Desaguadero into a shallow brackish waters of lake Poopo.

The temperature of the lake varies little through the year (50-53.6F). Under the influence of the lake, temperatures in the surroinding area do not drop at night nor in winter as much as they do at similar altitudes on the Altiplano. Thus, wheat and maize (corn) can be grown to a higher altitude (12,800 feet) around the lake than in other parts of the Altiplano. Lake Titicaca includes many small bays and headlands along its shores as well as small islands. The lake has an extensive fleet of motorboats carrying goods and passengers, especially between the Peruvian and Bolivian ports.

Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #8 on: March 23, 2008, 08:59:26 AM »



La Paz with Illimani in the background





Illimani, La Paz





La Paz with Illimani in the background
Logged
Claus-Peter
Kiva Supporter
Germany
*****
Gender: Male
Posts: 632



View Profile
« Reply To This #9 on: March 23, 2008, 09:08:54 AM »

Lake Titicaca (Bolivia)




Lake Titicaca from Isla del Sol







Logged
Natasha
Kiva Supporter
Australia
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 1082



View Profile
« Reply To This #10 on: March 29, 2008, 03:39:47 AM »

Attachment: Amnesty International Report 2007 (Bolivia)
www.amnesty.org

* BOLIVIA- Amnesty International 2007.doc (35 KB - downloaded 147 times.)
Logged
Natasha
Kiva Supporter
Australia
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 1082



View Profile
« Reply To This #11 on: April 07, 2008, 10:03:53 PM »

One of the recent loans from Bolivia described the following:

http://www.kiva.org/app.php?page=businesses&action=about&id=43433

"The group members have a deep-rooted belief system, and this conviction leads them to seek a blessing of their activities. For this, they practice the traditional ritual called “Ch’alla” whereby offerings are made to Pachamama, goddess of the earth, to allow them to succeed in their enterprise."



Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes. Pachamama is usually translated as "Mother Earth" but a more literal translation would be "Mother Universe"(in Aymara and Quechua mama = mother / pacha = world, space-time or the universe). Pachamama and Inti are the most benevolent deities and are worshiped in parts of the Andean mountain ranges, also known as Tawantinsuyu (stretching from present day Ecuador to Chile and Argentina).

In Inca mythology, Mama Pacha or Pachamama is a fertility goddess who presides over planting and harvesting. She causes earthquakes. Her husband was either Pacha Camac or Inti, depending on the source. Llamas are sacrificed to her. After conquest by Catholic Spain her image was masked by the Virgin Mary, behind whom she is invoked and worshiped in the Indian ritual, in some parts of Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru.

Since Pachamama is a "good mother", people usually toast to her honor before every meeting or festivity, in some regions by spilling a small amount of chicha on the floor, before drinking the rest. This toast is called "challa" and its made almost everyday. Pachamama has a special worship day called "Martes de challa" (Challa's Tuesday) where people bury food, throw candies, burn incense. In some cases, celebrants assist to traditional priests called "yatiris" in ancient rites to bring good luck or the good will of the goddess, such as sacrificing guinea pigs or burning llama fetuses (although these last two are no longer very common). The festival is after carnival and one day before the Catholic "miércoles de ceniza" (Ash Wednesday).

The central ritual to Pachamama is the Challa or Pago (Payment). It is carried out during all the month of August, and in many places also the first Friday of each month. Other ceremonies are carried out in special times, as upon leaving for a trip or upon passing an apacheta. According to Mario Rabey and Rodolfo Merlino, Argentine anthropologists who studied the Andean culture since the decades from 1970 to that of 1990, "the most important ritual is the challaco. Challaco is a deformation of the quechua words 'ch'allay' and 'ch'allakuy', that refer to the action to insistently sprinkle. In the current language of the peasants of the southern Central Andes, the word 'challar' is used like a synonym of 'to feed and to give drink to the land'. The challaco covers a complex series of ritual steps that begin in the family dwellings the night of the eve, during which cooks a special food, the tijtincha, and that culminate in an eye of water or the beginning of a ditch where is carried out the main ritual to the Mother Earth, with a series of tributes that include food, beverage, leaves of coke and cigars.

The religion centered in the Pachamama is practiced currently in parallel form to the Christianity, to the point such that many families are simultaneously Christian and pachamamistas.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachamama

For more information  Link http://boliviahoy.blogspot.com/2008/01/challa-in-bolivian-carnival.html




* Ch'alla.jpg (20.58 KB, 320x240 - viewed 513 times.)

* Ch'alla 1.jpg (21.02 KB, 320x239 - viewed 479 times.)
Logged
redstarr
Kiva Supporter
Fort Smith
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 211



View Profile
« Reply To This #12 on: May 06, 2008, 03:21:46 PM »

Here's a couple of pics of the Bolivian currency, the Boliviano.  This is a One Boliviano coin.  It takes 7.32 Bolivianos to equal one US dollar.  So a 25 dollar loan would be 183 of these.


* boliviano tail.jpg (23.99 KB, 368x355 - viewed 246 times.)

* boliviano.jpg (23.91 KB, 377x351 - viewed 241 times.)
Logged
Evelyn Yvonne Theriault
Kiva Supporter
Quebec
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 426



View Profile
WWW
« Reply To This #13 on: December 13, 2008, 10:25:13 AM »

Navidad (Christmas) in Bolivia

Link: Museum of Science and Industry
http://www.msichicago.org/scrapbook/scrapbook_exhibits/catw2006/traditions/countries/bolivia.html

Excerpt:
"Traditions:The main focus of the Christmas season in Bolivia is the presebre, or nativity scene, that most families and churches set up. Many are made in the shape of a pyramid with the manger itself at the top. In the bottom of the pyramid, Bolivians often place miniatures of things found in their villages and stores. For example, the presebre of a shoemaker's family would feature dozens of tiny shoes, shoemakers, as well as some of the tools of the trade. Miniatures symbolizing gifts to the baby Jesus, like toys, paintings, and ornaments, are often part of these elaborate manger scenes as well."

Raquel Welch's father was Bolivian. Here's a little recording from The Bay (a Canadian store)



Holiday music from Bolivia:


And now for something more secular!
« Last Edit: December 13, 2008, 10:43:30 AM by Evelyn Yvonne Theriault » Logged

Evelyn Yvonne Theriault, Teacher
Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Nelson Mandela
charity
Kiva Supporter
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 809


View Profile
« Reply To This #14 on: January 25, 2009, 02:46:01 PM »

I saw in the news today that Bolivians will be voting on a new constitution:

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/01/24/MNTF159FPI.DTL

It sounds like there are some definite changes that could be taking place...

Logged
charity
Kiva Supporter
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 809


View Profile
« Reply To This #15 on: January 26, 2009, 01:20:32 AM »

Apparently ~59% of Bolivian voters wanted the new constitution:
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2009/01/23/international/i130627S72.DTL

Quote
Bolivian voters embraced a new constitution Sunday that promises more power for the poor indigenous majority
....
Bolivia's Aymara, Quechua, Guarani and dozens of other indigenous groups only won the right to vote in 1952, when a revolution broke up the large haciendas on which they had lived as peons for generations.
....
But opposition leaders object that the constitution does not reflect Bolivia's growing urban population, which mixes both Indian blood and tradition with a new Western identity, and could leave non-Indians out of the picture. They also oppose Morales' vision of greater state control of the economy.
.....
On Sunday, opposition leaders celebrated as well as five of nine states rejected the constitution.
.....
Sunday's vote went peacefully, a relief for a nation where political tensions have recently turned deadly. In 2007, three college students were killed in anti-government riots, and 13 mostly indigenous Morales supporters died in September when rioters seized government buildings to block a vote on the proposed constitution
Logged
Amy-in-PHX
Kiva Supporter
Phoenix, AZ
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 2939



View Profile
« Reply To This #16 on: February 25, 2011, 01:56:16 AM »

The most recent entry in this thread concerning "Kiva country" Bolivia, was two years old and mentioned the fact that the people of Bolivia had just ratified a new constitution for their country in January 2009.  Under their prior constitution, they had elected their first president who is a member of an indigenous ethnic group (Evo Morales) in 2005, and promulgation of the new constitution was one of President Morales's campaign platform planks.  I wanted to learn more about Bolivia's most recent few years, and I am posting here some excerpts that I have copied from the website of the US Department of State.  The full article, called "Background Note:  Bolivia," can be read here:  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35751.htm


PEOPLE
According to the 2001 census, Bolivia’s ethnic distribution is estimated to be 55% indigenous, 15% European, and 30% mixed or mestizo (all categories are self-identified and answers vary widely depending on how questions are phrased). The largest of the approximately three dozen indigenous groups are the Quechua (29% or 2.5 million), Aymara (24% or 2 million), Chiquitano (1% or 180,000), and Guarani (1% or 125,000). No other indigenous groups represent more than 0.5% of the population. German, Croatian, Serbian, Asian, Middle Eastern, and other minorities also live in Bolivia. Many of these minorities descend from families that have lived in Bolivia for several generations.

Bolivia is one of the least developed countries in South America. Almost two-thirds of its people, many of whom are subsistence farmers, live in poverty. Population density ranges from less than one person per square kilometer in the southeastern plains to about 10 per square kilometer (25 per sq. mi.) in the central highlands. The annual population growth rate is about 1.97%.

The great majority of Bolivians are Roman Catholic, although Protestant denominations are expanding rapidly.  Many indigenous communities interweave pre-Columbian and Christian symbols in their religious practices.

Approximately 90% of the children attend primary school but often for a year or less. The literacy rate is low in many rural areas. Under President Morales, a number of areas have been declared “illiteracy free” but the level of literacy is often quite basic, restricted to writing one’s name and recognizing numbers.

Important 20th century Bolivian artists include, among others, Guzman de Rojas, Arturo Borda, Maria Luisa Pacheco, and Marina Nunez del Prado. Bolivia has rich folklore. Its regional folk music is distinctive and varied. The “devil dances” at the annual Oruro carnival are among the great South American folkloric events, as is the lesser known carnival at Tarabuco.



GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION
A new constitution was promulgated February 7, 2009, replacing Bolivia’s 1967 constitution. The 2009 constitution provides for legislative, executive, judicial, and "electoral" branches of government.

The new constitution strengthens the executive branch and centralizes political and economic decision-making. It also provides new powers and responsibilities at the departmental, municipal, and regional areas, as well as in newly created indigenous autonomous areas.

ECONOMY
Bolivia’s estimated 2009 gross domestic product (GDP) totaled $17.5 billion. Economic growth was estimated at about 3.7%, and inflation was estimated at about 0.3%.  President Evo Morales nationalized the hydrocarbon sector and expropriated some large international companies,
including Entel (telecommunications) and Vinto (tin smelting). Increased state control of the economy continues to be a primary goal of the Morales administration.  Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows have dwindled, as has long-term investment across most industrial sectors.

Bolivian exports were approximately $5.3 billion for 2009, up from $652 million in 1991.  Imports were $4.4 billion in 2009. Bolivia enjoyed an estimated $900 million trade surplus in 2009. Hydrocarbons made up 38.6% of the exports, minerals 28.26%, manufacturing 27.82%, and agriculture 5.32%.

Bolivia’s trade with neighboring countries is growing, in part because of several regional preferential trade agreements. Bolivia is a member of the Andean Community (CAN) and enjoys nominally free trade with other member countries (Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia). Bolivia currently is focused on developing markets through its membership in Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) whose members include Venezuela, Cuba, and Nicaragua.

Until recently, the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) allowed numerous Bolivian products to enter the United States duty-free, including alpaca and llama products and, subject to a quota, cotton textiles. Effective December 15, 2008, President George W. Bush suspended Bolivia’s participation in the program based on its failure to meet international counternarcotics obligations; meeting those obligations is a criterion in the U.S. statute which created the preference program. On June 30, 2009, President Barack Obama determined that Bolivia was not meeting the program’s eligibility criteria. This determination does not affect Bolivia’s eligibility for benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), which covers most of Bolivia’s exports to the United States.

Agriculture accounts for roughly 10.44% of Bolivia’s GDP. The amount of land cultivated by modern farming techniques is increasing rapidly in the Santa Cruz area, where climate permits two crops a year. Soybeans are the major cash crop, sold in the CAN market. The extraction of minerals and hydrocarbons accounts for another 14.24% of GDP and manufacturing around 11%.

The Government of Bolivia remains heavily dependent on foreign assistance to finance development projects.  Estimates indicate that as of 2008, the government owed $4.6 billion to foreign creditors. Between 1986 and 1998, Bolivia attended seven rounds of negotiations with Paris Club creditors and received U.S. $1.35 billion of bilateral debt forgiveness. The United States forgave almost all of Bolivia’s bilateral debt between 1999 and 2002 and strongly supported efforts to have multilateral institutions do the same. Bolivia received U.S. $1.95 billion in debt relief from HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) in 1998 and HIPC II in 2001, including almost complete bilateral debt forgiveness.

In June 2005, the G-8 countries decided to provide renewed World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) debt relief for the 18 participant nations of HIPC I and II through the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). Bolivia received U.S. $232.5 million in debt relief from the IMF in January 2006 and approximately U.S. $1.5 billion in debt relief from the World Bank in June 2006. The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) forgave $1 billion in debt in March 2007.

FOREIGN RELATIONS
Bolivia traditionally has maintained normal diplomatic relations with all hemispheric states except Chile.  Relations with Chile, strained since Bolivia’s defeat in the War of the Pacific (1879-83) and its loss of the coastal province of Atacama, were severed from 1962 to 1975 in a dispute over the use of the waters of the Lauca River. Relations were resumed in 1975, but broken again in 1978, over the inability of the two countries to reach an agreement that might have granted Bolivia sovereign access to the sea. They are maintained today below the ambassadorial level.

Under President Morales, relations between Bolivia and Cuba have improved considerably, and Cuba has sent doctors and teachers to Bolivia.

Relations with Venezuela are close, with the Venezuelan Government providing financial assistance to Bolivian municipalities, the armed forces, and the police since Morales took office.

The Bolivian Government announced in September 2007 that it would pursue diplomatic relations with Iran and Libya, with plans to cooperate in the petrochemical industry and increase Bolivian exports to both countries.

U.S.-BOLIVIAN RELATIONS
The United States and Bolivia have traditionally had cordial and cooperative relations. Development assistance from the United States to Bolivia dates from the 1940s; the U.S. remains a major partner for economic development, improved health, democracy, and the environment. In 1991, the U.S. Government forgave a $341 million debt owed by Bolivia to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) as well as 80% ($31 million) of the amount owed to the Department of Agriculture for food assistance. The United States has also been a strong supporter of forgiveness of Bolivia’s multilateral debt under the HIPC initiatives.

The United States Government channels its development assistance to Bolivia through USAID.  USAID is well known in Bolivia, especially in rural areas where thousands of projects have been implemented. USAID’s programs in Bolivia provide economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations through business development and trade, provide farmers with alternatives to illicit coca cultivation, improve food security, improve family health, strengthen democratic institutions, and promote sustainable use of natural resources and biodiversity conservation.

Bilateral relations have deteriorated sharply during the Morales administration, as the Bolivian Government escalated public attacks against the U.S. Government and began to dismantle key partnerships. In June 2008, the government endorsed the expulsion of USAID from Bolivia’s largest coca-growing region. In a dramatic action which culminated a period of intense Bolivian Government hostility toward the United States, in September 2008, President Morales accused Ambassador Philip S. Goldberg of conspiring against the government, declared him "persona non grata," and expelled him from Bolivia. President Morales never offered proof for his accusation, which the U.S. Government rejected as baseless. In a reciprocal action, the Department of State expelled Bolivian Ambassador Gustavo Guzman later that month. In November 2008, President Morales expelled the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) from the country, ending a 35-year history of engagement against narcotics production and trafficking.

Since May 2009, the U.S. and Bolivian governments have engaged in a dialogue to improve relations. The Bolivian Government has proposed a new framework agreement to define relations, which is being negotiated as part of the bilateral dialogue. In the meantime, U.S. assistance programs to promote health and welfare, advance economic development, and fight narcotics production and trafficking remain active. 
Logged

We can do no great things - only small things with great love.     (Mother Teresa)
Amy-in-PHX
Kiva Supporter
Phoenix, AZ
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 2939



View Profile
« Reply To This #17 on: February 25, 2011, 02:05:12 AM »

Evidently Bolivia was named in one or more of the State Dept communications published by Wikileaks.  A Youtube video from two months ago shows President Evo Morales responding to a journalist's question about the content of the document, during a Q&A session following his speech to the UN Climate Change Conference in Mexico.  His remarks are translated into English on the video.

Logged

We can do no great things - only small things with great love.     (Mother Teresa)
Amy-in-PHX
Kiva Supporter
Phoenix, AZ
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 2939



View Profile
« Reply To This #18 on: February 25, 2011, 02:12:29 AM »

Thousands left homeless as rains cause floods in Bolivia
24 February 2011 Last updated at 04:24 ET

At least three people have been killed and thousands left homeless in Bolivia after weeks of heavy torrential rains caused massive flooding.

Peru and Bolivia declared a state of emergency.

The worst-hit areas are La Paz, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Tarija, Chuquisaca and Pando, where rivers burst their banks, flooding farmlands and residential areas.

Rain and mudslides have also severed roads in the region.
[The above is from BBC news]
Logged

We can do no great things - only small things with great love.     (Mother Teresa)
Amy-in-PHX
Kiva Supporter
Phoenix, AZ
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 2939



View Profile
« Reply To This #19 on: March 01, 2011, 02:32:47 PM »

Over 400 homes were destroyed over the weekend by landslides, after torrential rains, in La Paz.  There is a photo essay here:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12594585
Logged

We can do no great things - only small things with great love.     (Mother Teresa)
Amy-in-PHX
Kiva Supporter
Phoenix, AZ
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 2939



View Profile
« Reply To This #20 on: March 11, 2011, 07:43:25 PM »

From this webpage:  http://www.globalenvision.org/countries/bolivia --(Mercy Corps site)
"Swapping Lithium for Oil"
Posted on January 15, 2009 by Natalie McGarry

Does Bolivia have a resource as valuable as Saudi Arabian oil?

The auto industry has historically relied on oil to power cars, but is now turning to new sources of energy. Consequently, raw materials like the lithium in electric car batteries are now in demand.

Ford and GM have invested in the research and production of electric cars, while Toyota has announced plans to build a hybrid electric and start selling an all-electric car by 2012.

So where does Bolivia come into the picture? The introduction of the lithium-ion battery allows cars to go farther on a single charge, making them more convenient and economically viable. But there is a catch: The lithium needed for these batteries is a limited resource, and according to this BBC video report, half of the world’s supply is under Bolivia’s salt flats.

Bolivia, the poorest country in South America, could benefit enormously from mining and processing lithium. But extraction industries have always been controversial. Political tensions over exporting natural gas have ended two presidencies and led to calls for regional autonomy. These tensions have damaged Bolivia's tourism industry, which makes up 6.1 percent of Bolivia's economy.

Mining lithium poses a potential economic Catch-22. Most tourists are drawn by Bolivia’s unspoiled landscape, with the salt flats being a particular point of interest. Mining for lithium could destroy the salt flats, while processing could lead to environmental degradation.

Although electric cars have often been hailed as the future of an environmentally conscious auto industry, lithium has the same Achilles heel as oil: it is a scarce resource. In addition, it is unclear whether the auto industry will even have access to the amount of lithium they would need to launch these ambitious plans. Bolivia’s president Evo Morales is famously cautious about allowing foreigners to mine, and he's considered a fierce environmental protectionist.

The decision to mine the salt flats is Bolivia's. Ultimately, the country will have to weigh the benefits of economic development against environmental protection, tourism and foreign influence.

Logged

We can do no great things - only small things with great love.     (Mother Teresa)
Peter S
Kiva Supporter
CA
*****
Posts: 2078



View Profile
« Reply To This #21 on: March 22, 2011, 07:15:57 PM »

noticed this disturbing reminder of the law of unintended consequences, in The Independent today:

The food fad that's starving Bolivia

selected extracts:

It is the "lost crop" of the Incas, a health-giving seed found in the Andes which is increasingly providing the garnish on fashionable Western dinner plates. But while demand for quinoa has given a lifeline to Bolivia's farmers, the native population, no longer able to afford a staple of the national diet, is now facing the threat of malnutrition.
. . .
Entrepreneurial Bolivians are returning from the city to cultivate quinoa plots in the countryside. But the country's agriculture ministry is reporting that as prices have risen national quinoa consumption has slumped by 34 per cent over five years, with local families no longer able to afford a staple that has become a luxury. A 1kg bag of quinoa costs almost five times the amount of its rice equivalent in local stores.

Bolivia has long suffered from a malnutrition problem and there are fears that the population will be forced to turn to cheaper, processed foods. Children in the quinoa- growing south of the country are among those showing chronic malnutrition symptoms.

~Peter
Logged

verba volant, littera scripta manet
Amy-in-PHX
Kiva Supporter
Phoenix, AZ
*****
Gender: Female
Posts: 2939



View Profile
« Reply To This #22 on: March 22, 2011, 08:23:19 PM »

noticed this disturbing reminder of the law of unintended consequences, in The Independent today:

The food fad that's starving Bolivia

selected extracts:

It is the "lost crop" of the Incas, a health-giving seed found in the Andes which is increasingly providing the garnish on fashionable Western dinner plates. But while demand for quinoa has given a lifeline to Bolivia's farmers, the native population, no longer able to afford a staple of the national diet, is now facing the threat of malnutrition.
. . .


Oh, no!   Shocked   Maybe I should stop buying quinoa.  Rice hasn't got nearly the protein of quinoa.
Logged

We can do no great things - only small things with great love.     (Mother Teresa)
Pages: 1 2 3 [All]   Go Up
  Bookmark This  |  E-Mail This  |  Print It  
 
Jump to:  

 
Powered by MySQL Powered by PHP Powered by SMF 1.1.11 | SMF © 2006-2009, Simple Machines LLC
Thanks to PixelSlot
Valid XHTML 1.0! Valid CSS!
Page created in 0.189 seconds with 24 queries.