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Author Topic: SIERRA LEONE  (Read 15545 times)
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Natasha
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« Reply To This #10 on: March 09, 2008, 09:58:05 PM »

Baked Chicken in a Peanut Sauce
Origin: Sierra Leone


Ingredients

3 tbsp olive oil
1.3kg chicken, cut into large pieces
1 medium onion, chopped
600g fresh tomatoes, chopped (or 2 tins)
1 medium bell pepper, chopped
1 habanero chilli, chopped
1 tsp thyme
1 bay leaf
1 tsp salt
1/2 tsp cayenne pepper
200ml peanut butter
200ml chicken stock
450g fine (French) beans


Add the oil to a large pan and sauté the chicken pieces in this until browned on all sides. Remove and set aside then add the onions and chilli to the pan and sauté for five minutes. Add the tomatoes and bell pepper and cook for a further 10 minutes. Add the thyme, bay leaf, salt, and cayenne and mix thoroughly.

Mix the peanut butter with the chicken stock until completely smooth. Transfer the chicken to a casserole, pour the tomato mixture and the stock mixture over the top and add the fine beans. Cover and bake in an oven pre-heated to 180°C for 1 hour. Serve on a bed of rice.

http://www.celtnet.org.uk/recipes/miscellaneous/fetch-recipe.php?rid=misc-baked-chicken-peanut-sauce&PHPSESSID=9bf98685df4f15b6c12ff17fcea0fa99
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Claus-Peter
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« Reply To This #11 on: March 24, 2008, 03:18:41 AM »

Geography

Sierra Leone, on the Atlantic Ocean in West Africa, is half the size of Illinois. Guinea, in the north and east, and Liberia, in the south, are its neighbors. Mangrove swamps lie along the coast, with wooded hills and a plateau in the interior. The eastern region is mountainous.

Government

Constitutional democracy.

History

The Bulom people were thought to have been the earliest inhabitants of Sierra Leone, followed by the Mende and Temne peoples in the 15th century and thereafter the Fulani. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the land and gave Sierra Leone its name, which means “lion mountains.” Freetown, on the coast, was ceded to English settlers in 1787 as a home for blacks discharged from the British armed forces and also for runaway slaves who had found asylum in London. In 1808 the coastal area became a British colony, and in 1896 a British protectorate was proclaimed over the hinterland.

Sierra Leone became an independent nation on April 27, 1961. A military coup overthrew the civilian government in 1967, which was in turn replaced by civilian rule a year later. The country declared itself a republic on April 19, 1971.

A coup attempt early in 1971 led to then prime minister Siaka Stevens calling in troops from neighboring Guinea's army, which remained for two years. Stevens turned the government into a one-party state under the aegis of the All People's Congress Party in April 1978. In 1992 rebel soldiers overthrew Stevens's successor, Joseph Momoh, calling for a return to a multiparty system. In 1996, another military coup ousted the country's military leader and president. Nevertheless, a multiparty presidential election proceeded in 1996, and People's Party candidate Ahmad Tejan Kabbah won with 59.4% of the vote, becoming Sierra Leone's first democratically elected president.

But a violent military coup ousted President Kabbah's civilian government in May 1997. The leader of the coup, Lieut. Col. Johnny Paul Koroma, assumed the title Head of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC). Koroma began a reign of terror, destroying the economy and murdering enemies. The Commonwealth of Nations demanded the reinstatement of Kabbah, and ECOMOG, the Nigerian-led peacekeeping force, intervened. On March 10, 1998, after ten months in exile, Kabbah resumed his rule over Sierra Leone. The ousted junta and other rebel forces continued to wage attacks, many of which included the torture, rape, and brutal maimings of thousands of civilians, including countless children; amputation by machete was the horrific signature of the rebels. In addition to political power, the rebels, who were supported by Liberia's president Charles Taylor, sought control of Sierra Leone's rich diamond fields.

In Jan. 1999, rebels and Liberian mercenaries stormed the capital, demanding the release of the imprisoned Revolutionary United Front (RUF) leader, Foday Sankoh. ECOMOG regained control of Freetown, but President Kabbah later released Sankoh so he could participate in peace negotiations. Pressured by Nigeria and the U.S., among other countries, Kabbah agreed to an untenable power-sharing agreement in July 1999, which made Sankoh vice president of the country—and in charge of the diamond mines. The accord dissolved in May 2000 after the RUF abducted about 500 UN peacekeepers and attacked Freetown. Sankoh was captured and died in government custody in 2003, while awaiting trial for war crimes.

The conflict was officially declared over in Jan. 2002. An estimated 50,000 people were killed in the decade-long civil war. The UN installed its largest peacekeeping force in the country (17,000 troops). President Kabbah was reelected with 70% of the vote in May 2002. In 2004, the disarmament of 70,000 soldiers was completed, and a UN-sponsored war crimes tribunal opened. For the past several years, the UN has listed Sierra Leone as the world's “least livable” country, based on its poverty and the poor quality of life endured by its citizens.

The trial of Charles Taylor, the former Liberian president, on charges of crimes against humanity began at a UN criminal court at The Hague in 2007. He is accused of abetting the violent rebel group in Sierra Leone's civil war that was responsible for atrocities which included hacking off the limbs of civilians, sexual slavery, conscripting child soldiers, and even cannibalism.

In June 2007, three former rebel leaders were convicted of crimes against humanity by a UN-backed court. Alex Tamba Brima, Brima Bazzy Kamara, and Santigie Borbor Kanumurder were found guilty of rape and enlisting child soldiers. It was the first time an international tribunal ruled on the recruitment of children under age 15 as soldiers.

In September 2007 elections, the governing party suffered a surprising defeat when opposition leader Ernest Koroma, of the All People's Congress (APC), defeated Vice President Solomon E. Berewa, of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), 55% to 45%. The elections were Sierra Leone's first since the United Nations peacekeeping force left the county in 2004.

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Claus-Peter
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« Reply To This #12 on: March 24, 2008, 03:19:44 AM »

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Claus-Peter
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« Reply To This #13 on: March 24, 2008, 03:22:17 AM »

Republic of Sierra Leone


President: Ernest Koroma (2007)

Land area: 27,653 sq mi (71,621 sq km); total area: 27,699 sq mi (71,740 sq km)

Population (2007 est.): 6,144,562 (growth rate: 2.3%); birth rate: 45.4/1000; infant mortality rate: 158.3/1000; life expectancy: 40.6; density per sq mi: 222

Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Freetown, 1,051,000

Monetary unit: Leone

Languages: English (official), Mende (southern vernacular), Temne (northern vernacular), Krio (lingua franca)

Ethnicity/race: 20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%); Creole (Krio) 10%; refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians

Religions: Islam 60%, indigenous 30%, Christian 10%

Literacy rate: 31% (1995 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2005 est.): $5.022 billion; per capita $900. Real growth rate: 5.5%. Inflation: 1% (2002 est.). Unemployment: n.a. Arable land: 8%. Agriculture: rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish. Labor force: 1.369 million (1981 est.). Industries: diamond mining; small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining, small commercial ship repair. Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite. Exports: $185 million f.o.b. (2004 est.): diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish. Imports: $531 million f.o.b. (2004 est.): foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals. Major trading partners: Belgium, Germany, U.S., UK, Côte d'Ivoire, China, Netherlands, South Africa, France (2004).

Member of Commonwealth of Nations

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 25,000 (2001); mobile cellular: 30,000 (2001). Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 9, shortwave 1 (1999). Radios: 1.12 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 2 (1999). Televisions: 53,000 (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000). Internet users: 20,000 (2001).

Transportation: Railways: total: 84 km used on a limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed (2001). Highways: total: 11,330 km; paved: 895 km; unpaved: 10,435 km (1999). Waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round. Ports and harbors: Bonthe, Freetown, Pepel. Airports: 10 (2002).

International disputes: large UN peacekeeping presence ended civil war but rebel gang fighting, ethnic rivalries, illegal diamond trading, corruption, and refugees spill over into neighboring states beset with their own civil disorder, refugees, and violence.
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Peter S
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« Reply To This #14 on: May 02, 2008, 01:11:49 PM »




Quote
Diary: Sierra Leone slum medic
Medical staff at a clinic in the coastal slum of Kroo Bay, in Sierra Leone's capital, Freetown, are keeping a diary of their working lives for the BBC News website.


Here, Bintu Koroma, who is a midwife at the clinic, talks about traditional beliefs and troubled pregnancies.

A woman arrived on the maternity ward last month, who had been in labour for more than one-and-a-half days without delivering.

Bintu Koroma cradles a newborn baby after a successful delivery

Her waters had broken from a premature rupture and she had gone to a traditional birth attendant, who had tried to deliver the baby but with no joy.

I examined her, however, there was not much I could do at this stage and I advised her to go to the hospital at once.

It is in our regulations that if a delivery goes on for more than 24 hours we must refer them immediately.

Inside I felt it might already be too late for this baby.

I learned later that in fact she had gone back to the traditional birth attendant because her family did not have the money to take her to the hospital.

The issue here is always money.

She eventually delivered but the baby was stillborn.
[...]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7377707.stm
each diary includes a link to the previous diary entry near the bottom of the page.





Save the Children have a major ongoing project in Kroo Bay where the clinic is, and an excellent interactive website about their work there

Quote
Kroo Bay is a warren of higgledy-piggledy, ramshackle shacks made from bits of corrugated iron. This shanty town is one of the worst places in a country that is officially recognised as the toughest place in the world to be born. There’s no electricity, no running water and only two toilets between 6,000 people.
[...]

http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/kroobay/
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verba volant, littera scripta manet
P, B and J
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« Reply To This #15 on: October 26, 2008, 04:24:07 AM »

I really have to second the plug from Peter above about the Save the Children website on Kroo Bay (This is Kroo Bay) which I only came across recently through some independant searches!

You can pan 360 degree photos, hear the local sounds, music, etc.  I encourage you to view the many webisodes they have here: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/kroobay/webisodes.php.  From there, in the bottom half of the page where it says "check out the other webisodes" click the arrow pointing left until you see the one entitled "01: Welcome to Kroo Bay 18.02.08" to begin with.

Despite the harsh realities of the conditions in which people are living, you will see smiling people, children playing, hear upbeat music, a plethora of hairstyles, and even a fashion show (for those who like that)!  Well, even though I'm not into fashion in a big way, I found it wonderful to watch the girls and women strut their stuff with their heads held high, even if (or especially because) it was taking place in a slum.  The unexpectedness of the setting made its impact all the more resounding.  Of course there are the very sad stories too, but somehow, despite everything they go through, the community seems to be so very full of life, at least that's how it came across to me with all these webisodes (and there are many!).
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charity
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« Reply To This #16 on: March 08, 2011, 02:33:06 PM »

I posted this under the thread regarding turmoil in Northern Africa, but I thought I would post it here also, as it relates in large part to recent history Sierra Leone:

I heard an interesting and crazy news segment, from the 2/24/11 edition of PRIs "The World." 
http://www.theworld.org/2011/02/gaddafi-activities-in-africa/

In it they interviewed David Crane, founding Chief Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone.  He talked about how there was lots of evidence tying Libyas Gadhafi to crimes in Sierra Leone during the Sierra Leone Civil War 1999-2003.  In fact he said all roads led back to Gadhafi - as Gadhafi was a main orchestrator of the 'West African joint criminal enterprise' -training Liberias president Charles Taylor, Burkino Fasos president Blaise Compaore, and the leader of the Revolutionary United Front Foday Sankoh in his Terrorist camps in the 1980s.  As Gadhafi has stated -he wanted to be the "Emperor of Africa" - and so he was setting up all these people working with/for him, and they were responsible for most the movement of guns, cash, gold, diamonds and timber in west Africa.

This prosecutor said he made a political decision not to also prosecute Gadhafi and Compaore along with Charles Taylor, in that there was already unease about trying a sitting head of state (let alone three), and Gadhafi was popular with the west (funders of the court) at the time - clearing out his weapons, and selling oil. 

Another interview with him about it, that also lists other countries in Gadhafis plans:
http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/decapua-gadhafi-west-africa-3mar11-117315153.html
"Crane says, “He had a geo-political plan to place surrogates in various countries in West Africa, starting with Burkina Faso, then Liberia, followed by Sierra Leone, then Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Gambia and Senegal.”

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charity
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« Reply To This #17 on: May 30, 2012, 04:07:40 PM »

Charles Taylor was convicted in late April and sentenced today to 50 years in prison for his crimes against humanity and war crimes in Sierra Leone.  The Court was the Special Court for Sierra Leone, which was set up jointly by the Government of Sierra Leone and the United Nations.   He was found guilty of 11 counts, including murder, rape, sexual slavery, enslavement, other inhumane acts, terrorism, violence to life, health and physical or mental well being, including cruel treatment, pillage, and the forcing of children under age 15 to participate in armed groups and hostilities.   64 year old Taylor will be serving his sentence in Britian.  

http://www.sc-sl.org/
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/27/world/africa/charles-taylor-liberia-sierra-leone-war-crimes-court-verdict.html?ref=charlestaylor
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/31/world/africa/charles-taylor-sentenced-to-50-years-for-war-crimes.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1
« Last Edit: May 30, 2012, 07:31:38 PM by charity » Logged
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